'If I kneel down I'll never get up again, Ma'am': Captain Sir Tom Moore shares joke with the Queen as she knights at Windsor Castle - just hours after she attended Princess Beatrice's wedding

National hero Captain Sir Tom Moore has today been knighted by the Queen who arrived straight from the wedding of her granddaughter Princess Beatrice in an unprecedented personal ceremony in recognition of his £33million fundraising effort for the NHS.
The Second World War veteran's extraordinary year was capped as Her Majesty dubbed him a knight with her father, George VI's sword, in a unique ceremony held outside for the first time ever to lower the risk of spreading coronavirus.
Staged in the imposing setting of Windsor Castle's quadrangle, the ceremony saw the 100-year-old former Army officer joined by his family.
The Queen has been shielding at her Berkshire home for much of the lockdown with the Duke of Edinburgh, and the event was her first face-to-face royal engagement with a member of the public since March.
Her Majesty left her granddaughter Prince Beatrice's wedding to stage the rare outdoor investiture, with her arrival announced by the sound of bagpipes played by the Queen's Piper, Pipe Major Richard Grisdale, of The Royal Regiment of Scotland.
The Queen spoke to Sir Tom briefly and then the family gathered around for a chat with her too. The Queen said: 'A hundred is a great age.' Sir Tom responded: '‘You’ve a long way to go yet’. The Queen was also heard saying: 'Anyway it's a nice day. Best of luck to you.' 
Just hours earlier the Queen, Duke of Edinburgh and other close family attended the unannounced wedding of their granddaughter Princess Beatrice and Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi in a nearby chapel. 
The Queen, who was still in the same outfit she had worn to Beatrice's wedding, told Sir Tom and his family the wedding was 'very nice', adding: 'My granddaughter got married this morning both Philip and I managed to get there - very nice.' 
The Queen hosted the informal ceremony and spent around five minutes chatting to Sir Tom and his family, praising the veteran as she said: 'Thank you so much, an amazing amount of money you raised.'
Before the ceremony, Sir Tom had joked as he left his Bedfordshire home: 'If I kneel down I'll never get up again.'Her Majesty beamed as she bestowed the honour upon the 100-year-old veteran
The Queen, 94, chatted animatedly with Sir Tom and his family at the unprecedented personal ceremony held at Windsor Castle
Proud family: Sir Tom with his family, from left: Colin Ingram-Moore, Benjie Ingram-Moore, Sir Tom Moore, Hannah Ingram-Moore and Georgia Ingram-Moore
Before the ceremony, Sir Tom had joked as he left his Bedfordshire home: 'If I kneel down I'll never get up again.'
Sir Tom was joined by his family for the ceremony, which comes after he was dubbed the nation's hero for his fundraising efforts
Sir Tom laughed and joked with onlookers after the knighthood ceremony held in his honour
Lieutenant Colonel Stephen Segrave welcomed Sir Tom into the quadrangle while they waited for the Monarch
Captain Moore is pictured front centre during his days in the Army. He joined the Armed Forces in 1940 when he was aged 20
The Queen is spotted leaving the royal Lodge at Windsor after the wedding of her granddaughter Princess Beatrice to meet Capt Tom Moore for his knighting
After the ceremony Sir Tom had a refreshment break inside the castle and returned to the quadrangle full of vigour and gave a series of interviews to the waiting press.
He said: 'I am absolutely overawed, this is such a high award and to get it from Her Majesty as well - what more can anyone wish for? This has been an absolutely magnificent day for me.'
Asked what was better, raising more than £30million or having the Queen 'break her lockdown' to award him the honour, Sir Tom replied: 'The money is very useful but you've only one Queen and when you get a message from the Queen there's no value that can be placed on that.'  
The veteran went on to say: 'To meet the Queen was more than anyone could expect, never ever did I imagine I would get so close to the Queen and have such a kind message from her, that was really outstanding, it was truly outstanding.'

Zimmer of hope for the world: How WWII hero become a beacon of light in the planet's darkest days

Captain Tom's story has been a rare piece of good news in a world full of fear at the coronavirus pandemic which has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives globally.
People from 53 different countries donated millions to Captain Tom Moore's fundraiser for the NHS - with the total continuing to rise even after he achieved his goal of 100 laps of his garden.
The Second World War veteran completed his target of laps at his home in Marston Moretaine, Bedfordshire, on April 16 - a fornight before his 100th birthday on April 30.
Captain Moore's story was picked up by newspapers and TV networks around the world, from The Times of Israel to The Phuket News in Thailand. 
Captain Moore raised more than £31million on his JustGiving page, despite having an initial target of £1,000 when he began fundraising.
The fundraising campaign was launched on April 9, and soon hit its initial target within the first 24 hours.  
Sir Tom took the media questions in his stride but when he was asked to reveal the personal message from the Queen he remained tight lipped.
'No. That's between the Queen and I,' he said 'I don't think I'll tell anybody what she said, it was just the Queen and I speaking privately and it was a great honour for me to be able to speak to her at all.'   
Sir Tom thanked his supporters who helped him raise the massive total for the NHS, something he said the Queen highlighted: 'She did mention the money and she thought it was a magnificent sum to raise.'
Reflecting on the journey that has taken him from local fundraiser to a knighthood he said: 'When you think that about four months ago I was just Tom Moore, now I'm Sir Tom Moore, no one could ever have believed that, in that time it would happen to me.
'I've been really honoured that this should happen and I'm thrilled that it did happen, and thank you everyone who subscribed to the fund - I really appreciate it and thank you all very much.'  
At the end of his press interviews Sir quipped 'is that all?' after being told he had answered his last question.
And when a journalist said it was probably too hot for him in the sun he looked down at his wartime medals and joked 'all this metal work reflects the heat'.
Sir Tom answered one last question to reveal he and the 94-year-old monarch had talked about ages: 'She did mention I'm 100 and I said to her ''well you've a long way to go yet'', so she's alright.' 
The monarch was joined in the quadrangle by the Master of the Household, retired Vice Admiral Tony Johnstone-Burt, who carried the insignia of Knight Bachelor, while one of the Queen's Pages was entrusted with King George VI's sword.
Waiting was Sir Tom and his family - daughter Hannah Ingram-Moore, son-in-law Colin Ingram, grandson Benjie and granddaughter Georgia.
As the head of state chatted she was overheard telling the former Army captain who celebrated becoming a centenarian a few months ago: 'One hundred is a great age.'
The talk turned to national events and the coronavirus and the Queen, who has been sheltering at Windsor with Philip asked: 'Have you been shut up - been isolating?'
The family of the fundraising hero described the Queen's decision to give him his knighthood in a unique private ceremony as 'the icing on the cake' of his achievements.
Prime Minister Boris Johnson tweeted: 'Arise Sir Tom! So richly deserved - you have inspired the whole nation with your fantastic fundraising efforts.'
Labour leader Sir Keir Starmer tweeted: 'Congratulations Sir Tom! Thank you for your incredible fundraising efforts through this crisis and for being an inspiration to so many.'
The 100-year-old Second World War veteran earned himself a knighthood after raising £33 million for health service charities.
Sir Tom won the hearts of the nation and the donations came flooding in after he set out on his challenge to walk 100 lengths of his Bedfordshire garden before his 100th birthday earlier this year.
While other investitures due to be held at Buckingham Palace in London and the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh in June and July were postponed, a special exception was made for Sir Tom. 
The Prime Minister previously called Sir Tom a 'point of light in our lives' as he thanked him for pulling the nation together through the coronavirus pandemic. 
A post on Captain Sir Tom Moore's official Twitter account this morning shared a picture of him wearing his campaign medals ahead of the ceremony.
It read: 'Good Morning! Ready and raring to go for what is a very special day. Thank you for all the well wishes, as ever, overwhelmed by your support. #todaywillbeagoodday'
Speaking to reporters as he left his home, he said: 'It isn't everybody that gets the chance to see the Queen, is it? It's going to be absolutely marvellous for me.' 
His daughter Hannah Ingram-Moore said the investiture was the 'icing on the cake' of her father's amazing year. Speaking to BBC Breakfast ahead of the ceremony, she said: 'We will take a leisurely pace down to Windsor - no rushing today and no falling, no tripping, and we have a fairly regimented day ahead of us.'
She added: 'Protocol is being written as we speak and we will simply be doing as we are told.'
Sir Tom's grandson Benjie said: 'I just want to say thank you to absolutely everybody who has supported us.
'We would not be in this situation without everyone on the other side of the camera, so, from our family, thank you for putting us in this situation.'
His granddaughter Georgia added: 'We are so proud of him and I'm so excited for this day.'
Ahead of the ceremony, Sir Tom said on his official Twitter account: 'It is going to be the most special of days for me.' 
Buckingham Palace believes it is the first time the 'unique' format of his ceremony will have taken place, amid the exceptional circumstances of the pandemic and Downing Street's announcement of Sir Tom's individual knighthood.
Royal commentator Dickie Arbiter described the Queen's decision to give Sir Tom his knighthood in an individual ceremony as 'very significant'.
He added: 'The Queen has always said she 'needs to be seen to be believed' so today she will be seen - the last time we actually saw her physically was in June in the alternative Trooping the Colour at Windsor Castle.
'To actually see the Queen in person - this is a step in the right direction, a step hopefully back to new normality, but it will be a very slow step.'
The Queen used the sword that belonged to her father, King George VI, and will present Sir Tom with the insignia of Knight Bachelor.
Buckingham Palace said the investiture followed strict social distancing rules.
Earlier in the day, Princess Beatrice married Italian property developer Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi in a surprise secret ceremony at Windsor Castle.
The couple were due to tie the knot at the Chapel Royal of St James's Palace on 29 May. But their ceremony was postponed due to Covid-19 and no new date was given by the palace at the time.  
Beatrice, 31, and Edo exchanged vows today at 11am at the Royal Chapel of All Saints, in the grounds of Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson's home of Royal Lodge, in Windsor Great Park. On marriage Beatrice becomes a stepmother to Edo's son Christopher, known as Wolfie. 
The bride's grandparents the Queen, 94, and the Duke of Edinburgh, 99, who have both been in isolation at Windsor Castle, were in attendance and appeared in excellent spirits as they left the service. The Queen, who has now seen six of her eight grandchildren marry, looked resplendent in mint green for the occasion.
The bride's parents, Prince Andrew and the Duchess of York as well as her sister Princess Eugenie, 30, are believed to have been among the 20 or so guests in attendance, with the guest list vastly stripped back due to Covid-19 restrictions which allow a maximum of 30 people. 

Queen uses her father George VI's sword 

During the ceremony, The Queen used the sword that belonged to her father, George VI and will award Captain Sir Thomas Moore with the insignia of Knight Bachelor.
The sword used by The Queen at investitures is one of two near identical swords that belonged to The Queen's father George VI. 
They were worn by him in his duties as Colonel of the Scots Guards from 1932-37. The sword The Queen uses for investitures is the 'picquet' weight version which is a slightly smaller light dress version worn in court.
The sword used by The Queen at investitures is one of two near identical swords that belonged to George VI
The sword used by The Queen at investitures is one of two near identical swords that belonged to George VI
The Queen lent the other version to the Royal Armouries in the Tower of London in 1952 at the request of the then Master of The Armouries Sir James Mann so that the Royal Armouries could display a sword belonging to each Monarch going back to George II.
Both swords are almost identical, made by the same maker, Edward Smith, etched in bright polished relief with a frosted background with the badges mottoes and battle honours of the Scots Guards and the Cipher of George V. 
There are two possibilities for the appearance of George V's cypher on the blade: the sword may have been acquired when George VI was Duke of York and Colonel of the Scots Guards, or it belonged to George V and was inherited by his son.
The Queen places her handbag on a chair before presenting Captain Sir Thomas Moore with his knighthood at ceremony at Windsor CastleCaptain Sir Thomas Moore after he received his knighthood

From Yorkshire to India: Colonel Tom Moore's career in the military

Colonel Tom pictured during the Second World War. Boris Johnson described him as a national treasure during the Covid-19 crisis after raising almost £33million for the NHS
Colonel Tom pictured during the Second World War. Boris Johnson described him as a national treasure during the Covid-19 crisis after raising almost £33million for the NHS
Captain Tom Moore was conscripted into the British Army in June 1940 when he was 20, alongside all men aged 20 to 35.  
He began his military career in Otley, West Yorkshire, where he joined the 8th Battalion, the Duke of Wellington's Regiment under Lieutenant Lord George Saville.
The Regiment was sent to train in Wadebridge, Cornwall where they were tasked with coastal defence amid a predicted German invasion.
A young Captain Moore was soon promoted to Corporal and sent to the officer cadet training unit in Droitwich Spa.
Here, he celebrated his 21st birthday after he passed as a Second Lieutenant.
In August 1941, he was sent to the DWR headquarters in Halifax where he joined the 9th Battalion at Winchcombe.  
The infantry battalion then converted to an armoured regiment 146th Royal Armoured Corp, though the majority of the soldiers could not drive.
In October, the unit was posted to Bombay, now Mumbai, in India. The journey took six weeks by sea, with a four-day delay in Freetown, Sierra Leone and a four-day stop in Cape Town.
Captain Moore then took a train from Bombay to Poona, before arriving at Kirkee, a town now known as Khadki.
The 9th DWR formed the 50th Indian Tank Brigade under the command of Brigadier Schreiber.
Captain Moore was then asked by the Brigadier to start a motorcycling course for the Brigade due to his expertise for the sport.    
The Brigade was then ordered to move to Calcutta - the road journey was in a monsoon and took three weeks. 
His Battalion was stationed in the Lohardaga district near Ranchi.
They then took part in two exercises in the Arakan before moving further east and south to Rangoon.
Captain Moore was then sent on a course at the approved vehicle depot in Bovington, England.
He remained here as an instructor until it was closed. 

Long to reign over us: The Queen marks 25,000 days on the throne tomorrow after being crowned at 25 to become Britain's longest-serving monarch aged 94

The Queen will have reigned for 25,000 days tomorrow, passing another milestone as the nation's longest serving monarch.
Elizabeth II became sovereign on February 6, 1952 on the death of her father, King George VI, when she was 25.
The Queen reached her Silver Jubilee in 1977, Golden one in 2002 and Diamond Jubilee in 2012.
And the 94-year-old is now less than two years away from celebrating her Platinum Jubilee - 70 years on the throne - in 2022. 
The Queen has been a figure of continuity as her country changed through the 20th century, the Millennium and into the 21st century amid new technological and social advances and a succession of British governments.
During the seven decades of her reign, man has landed on the Moon, Britain got its first, then second, female prime minister, the internet was invented, and gay marriage was legalised in the UK.
The public has looked to the Queen in times of tragedy - the September 11 terror attacks, the London bombings, the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, and more recently during the coronavirus crisis.
As well as being the longest-reigning monarch in British history, the Queen is also the longest still-serving sovereign and wealthiest Queen in the world, and the oldest British monarch.  JUNE 2, 1953: The Queen wearing the Imperial State Crown and the Duke of Edinburgh in the uniform of Admiral of the Fleet wave from the balcony to the onlooking crowds around the gates of Buckingham Palace after her Coronation on June 2, 1953
JUNE 1, 2020: Her Majesty riding Balmoral Fern, a 14-year-old Fell Pony, in Windsor Home Park. The Queen - the nation's longest serving monarch - will have reigned for 25,000 days on Saturday. The 94-year-old continues to saddle up and ride around the grounds of her home
MAY 24, 1957: The Queen arriving at the Copenhagen Town Hall after driving from the Amalienborg Palace in an open car
FEBRUARY 7, 1952: The Queen, then just 24, returning to Clarence House, London with the Duke of Edinburgh from London Airport, after the sudden death of her father, King George VI
JUNE 5, 1961: American President John Kennedy (right) and his wife Jacqueline (second left) with Queen Elizabeth II (second right) and the Duke of Edinburgh at Buckingham Palace
JULY 30, 1966: England captain Bobby Moore holding the Jules Rimet Trophy, after collecting it from the Queen following England's win at the World Cup at Wembley, London
OCTOBER 3, 1970: Her Majesty with Prime Minister Edward Heath (left), American President Richard Nixon and his wife Pat Nixon at Chequers, the official country residence of the Prime Minister in Buckinghamshire
FEBRUARY 16, 1977: The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh as they received a traditional Fijian welcome on board the Royal yacht Britannia on their arrival at Suva
JULY 29, 1981: The Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales waving to the crowds outside Buckingham Palace from the balcony after their wedding at St Paul's cathedral
JULY 11, 1977: The Queen receiving flowers during a walkabout among the crowds in Ipswich, during her Silver Jubilee Tour of Britain
JULY 29, 1981: The Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales waving to the crowds outside Buckingham Palace from the balcony after their wedding at St Paul's cathedral

The longest-reigning monarchs 

1. Louis XIV of France (reigned from 14 May 1643 to 1 September 1715)
2. Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand (reigned from 9 June 1946 to 13 October 2016)
3. Johann II of Liechtenstein (reigned from 12 November 1858 to 11 February 1929)
4. Queen Elizabeth II (reigned from 6 February 1952) 
5. K'inich Janaab Pakal (reigned from 29 July 615 to 31 August 683) 
When she became the country's longest-serving monarch in 2015, she thanked the nation for its kind messages, but admitted that the royal record was, 'not one to which I have ever aspired'.
'Inevitably a long life can pass by many milestones. My own is no exception,' she remarked.
The Queen will be at Windsor Castle with the Duke of Edinburgh and the 'HMS Bubble' of staff who have been running the couple's reduced household.
She will have been monarch for 68 years, five months and 12 days by July 18, and in 2015 overtook the record of 23,226 days, 16 hours and some 30 minutes set by her great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria.
But Her Majesty's approach to having been on the throne for 25,000 days will undoubtedly be a matter-of-fact one, with the milestone unlikely to be on her radar. A Buckingham Palace spokesman said: 'The Queen is spending the day privately.'
In March, the Queen became the fourth longest-serving monarch today, surpassing Mayan ruler Pakal the Great.
By March 11, Her Majesty had been on the throne for 68 years and 34 days, while K'inich Janaab Pakal ruled the Maya city state of Palenque for 68 years and 33 days before his death in 683AD.  
Meanwhile, just ahead of the British monarch is Johann II of Liechtenstein, who ruled from 1858 and 1929.
This is followed by Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand.
King Bhumibol reigned from 1946 until his death in October 2016 and was the world's longest living reigning monarch before the Queen.
Holding on to the top spot is Louis XIV of France, with an impressive 72-year and 110-day reign.
Known as Louis the Great, the French monarch became King at the age of four following the death of his father Louis XIII, and ruled from 14 May 1643 to 1 September 1715.  
The Queen, 94, has been seen riding at Windsor throughout lockdown and celebrated both her actual and official birthdays, as well as the Duke of Edinburgh turning 99.  
The Queen said of the global Covid-19 pandemic: 'While we have faced challenges before, this one is different.'
She also delivered two rare televised addresses to the nation just weeks apart during lockdown, reassuring the country that the virus would be overcome, telling those in isolation: 'We will meet again.'
In another speech to mark the 75th anniversary of VE Day, she told how the message at the end of the war in Europe was 'never give up, never despair'. 
NOVEMBER 24, 1992: The Queen delivering her speech after a Guildhall luncheon to mark the 40th anniversary of her accession to the throne
Pakal the Great is thought to have ascended to the throne at the age of 12- years-old and during his rule managed to expand Palenque's power in the western Maya states.
The Mayan civilisation reached its peak between 250 and 900 AD, when it ruled large swathes of what is now southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize and Honduras.

From the Falklands War and Munich Air Crash to England winning the World Cup and Megxit: The milestones and events in the Queen's long reign

As the Queen reaches 25,000 days on the throne, here are some of the events and milestones of her reign:
1952: George VI dies and Princess Elizabeth becomes Queen. Flood devastates the Devon village of Lynmouth. Mau Mau rising in Kenya.
1953: Sweet rationing ends in Britain. Queen Mary dies. Everest conquered on eve of the Coronation.
1954: Study links cancer to smoking. Crash grounds BOAC's Comet aircraft. French defeated at Dien Bien Phu in Vietnam. Elvis releases his first record. Roger Bannister breaks the four-minute mile record.
1955: Cyprus goes on strike against British rule. Sir Winston Churchill resigns as Prime Minister due to his failing health. The Warsaw Pact is signed by the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies. Princess Margaret calls off plans to marry Group Captain Peter Townsend.
1956: Hungarian uprising and Suez crisis. Teddy Boys rock around the clock. Prince Rainier III of Monaco marries American film actress Grace Kelly.
1957: Prime Minister Harold Macmillan tells a Tory rally 'most of our people have never had it so good'. The Treaty of Rome sets up the European Economic Community. Russians launch the Sputnik satellite, the first man-made object ever to leave the Earth's atmosphere.
1958: Race riots flare in Notting Hill. Manchester United players die in the Munich air crash.
1959: The Mini car makes its first appearance and the first UK motorway, the M1, opens.
1960: Macmillan's Wind Of Change speech. Princess Margaret marries Tony Armstrong-Jones.
1961: John F Kennedy succeeds Dwight D Eisenhower as US president. Berlin Wall rises. Soviet Union puts first man, Yuri Gagarin, into space.
1962: US spaceman John Glenn orbits the Earth. The Cuban Missile crisis is resolved.
1963: Lord Beeching wields the axe on British Rail. Martin Luther King's I Have A Dream speech. John F Kennedy is assassinated. Profumo scandal. Great Train Robbery. One of the coldest, snowiest winters on record.
1964: Beatlemania grips the UK and US. Cassius Clay defeats Sonny Liston. Mary Quant pronounces Paris fashion 'out of date'.
1965: Rhodesia declares independence. US bombs North Vietnam. Britain appoints its first female High Court judge.
1966: Swinging London revolves around Carnaby Street and the Kings Road. The Queen Mother undergoes major abdominal surgery. England win the World Cup. Aberfan disaster in Wales.
1967: Breathalyser introduced. Arab-Israeli War. Nigerian Civil War. Abortion and homosexuality are legalised.
1968: Enoch Powell makes 'rivers of blood' speech. Ulster Troubles erupt with civil rights protests.
1969: Death penalty for murder permanently abolished in Britain. Prince of Wales's Investiture at Caernarvon. British troops sent to Northern Ireland. American Neil Armstrong becomes first man to walk on the Moon. Woodstock music festival.
1970: Voting age cut from 21 to 18. North Sea oil fields discovered. First jumbo jet lands at Heathrow. Edward Heath wins election for the Tories. Colonel Muammar Gaddafi takes over as leader of Libya.
1971: British entry into EEC agreed. Decimalised currency launched in the UK. Angry Brigade bombs Employment Secretary's home.
1972: Miners' strike and power crisis - state of emergency declared. Industrial Relations Act disputes. Bloody Sunday. Duke of Windsor dies. First home video game system is released.
1973: Britain joins the EEC. The Princess Royal marries Captain Mark Phillips.
1974: Edward Heath loses narrowly to Harold Wilson, who wins second general election. US President Richard Nixon resigns over the Watergate affair.
1975: Margaret Thatcher becomes Conservative Party leader. Sex Discrimination and Equal Pay Acts. End of Vietnam War.
1976: James Callaghan replaces Wilson at No 10. One of the hottest summers on record. Concorde begins commercial flights.
1977: Lib-Lab pact. Grunwick picket clashes. Punk rock. Silver Jubilee. The Queen becomes a grandmother. Red Rum wins Grand National for a record third time.
1978: Rhodesia settlement. Anna Ford becomes ITN's first primetime woman newsreader. Red Brigades kidnap former Italian premier Aldo Moro. World's first test tube baby, Louise Brown, born in Oldham. Winter Of Discontent strikes.
1979: Margaret Thatcher becomes Britain's first woman prime minister. Queen's art adviser Anthony Blunt exposed as Russian spy. Fall of the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia. Islamic revolutionaries come to power in Iran.
1980: SAS storms Iranian Embassy. Runners Steve Ovett and Sebastian Coe win Olympic gold.
1981: Brixton riots. The Prince of Wales weds Lady Diana Spencer. Unemployment reaches 2.5 million. Britain in recession. The launch of the first space shuttle - Columbia.
1982: Falklands War - Prince Andrew is among those serving in the forces. Intruder in Queen's bedroom. Pope visits Britain. King Henry VIII's Mary Rose raised in the Solent. Prince William born. Economic recession.
1983: US President Ronald Reagan's Star Wars speech. Russians shoot down Korean jetliner.
1984: The IRA bombs Grand Hotel, Brighton. Indira Gandhi assassinated. Bob Geldof's Ethiopia appeal. Miners' strikes. Prince Harry born.
1985: Bradford City football stadium fire kills 56. Heysel stadium riot kills 39. Live Aid concert held to raise money for Ethiopian famine.
1986: Funeral of Duchess of Windsor at Frogmore. Prince Andrew marries Sarah Ferguson and becomes Duke of York.
1987: Zeebrugge disaster. The Great Storm sweeps through southern England. IRA bombs Enniskillen Remembrance Day parade. Hungerford massacre. King's Cross fire.
1988: Piper Alpha oil platform disaster. Lockerbie jumbo jet bombing. Government loses Spycatcher legal battle. Professor Stephen Hawking's A Brief History Of Time is published.
1989: Hillsborough disaster. Berlin Wall falls. Tiananmen Square massacre. Author Salman Rushdie goes into hiding. Tim Berners-Lee invents the World Wide Web.
1990: John Major becomes prime minister. Iraq invades Kuwait. Nelson Mandela is released from prison. Poll tax riots.
1991: Allies launch Operation Desert Storm in Gulf War against Iraq. Russian president Mikhail Gorbachev resigns. Birmingham Six freed after 16 years in jail.
1992: The Queen's 'annus horribilis' - the Princess Royal and Captain Phillips divorce, the Waleses and the Yorks separate, Windsor Castle goes up in flames. Black Wednesday - the day Britain crashed out of the ERM. The break-up of Yugoslavia.
1993: Publication of the Prince of Wales's intimate talk with Camilla Parker Bowles. The IRA bombs Warrington. Buckingham Palace opens to the public. Stephen Lawrence is stabbed to death in Eltham, south-east London.
1994: Labour leader John Smith dies. The Queen and French President Francois Mitterrand open the Channel Tunnel. 50th anniversary of D-Day. Prince of Wales admits adultery in TV documentary. IRA ceasefire. The Queen visits Russia. Genocide in Rwanda.
1995: Official Aids cases pass one million mark. Barings Bank collapses. Terrorist gas attacks panic Tokyo and Yokohama. VE Day and VJ Day commemorated. Princess Diana's Panorama interview.
1996: The Duke and Duchess of York divorce. The Prince and Princess of Wales divorce. Mid-air crash in India kills more than 350. Fire in Channel Tunnel. Ban on exports of British beef amid BSE crisis.
1997: New Labour under Tony Blair beats the Conservatives, ending 18 years of Tory rule. Royal Yacht Britannia decommissioned. Diana, Princess of Wales dies in Paris car crash. Scotland and Wales votes for devolution. Dolly the Sheep cloned. Handover of Hong Kong from Britain to China.
1998: War breaks out in Europe as a Nato coalition attacks Yugoslavia. Digital TV launched. Operation Desert Fox in Iraq. Good Friday Agreement in Northern Ireland. Omagh bombing.
1999: Birth of single European currency, the euro. Prince Edward marries Sophie Rhys-Jones.
2000: A new millennium and the Queen Mother's 100th year. British rower Steve Redgrave makes Olympic history by winning his fifth consecutive gold medal. George W Bush becomes US president.
2001: September 11 terrorist attacks. Foot-and-mouth outbreak in UK. First space tourist. Britain joins the US in strikes against the Taliban in Afghanistan.
2002: The Queen's Golden Jubilee. The Queen Mother and Princess Margaret die. Twelve European Union countries adopt the euro.
2003: Britain and the US go to war against Saddam Hussein's Iraq.
2004: Double Olympic gold for Kelly Holmes in 800m and 1,500m in Athens. Asian tsunami kills more than 100,000.
2005: Pope John Paul II dies and is succeeded by Pope Benedict XVI. The Prince of Wales marries Camilla Parker Bowles. London wins 2012 Olympics bid. July 7 terror attacks in London. Civil partnerships give same-sex couples legal rights.
2006: The former Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein is hanged in Baghdad. Lebanon War.
2007: Gordon Brown replaces Tony Blair as Prime Minister. The Queen and Duke of Edinburgh celebrate their diamond wedding anniversary.
2008: Jury return a verdict of unlawful killing in the inquest into the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. The UK enters a recession following the financial crisis. Barack Obama is elected to become the first black US president.
2009: Singer Michael Jackson dies. Swine flu pandemic. MPs' expenses scandal.
2010: David Cameron becomes Prime Minister, leading a Tory-Liberal Democrat coalition. The Queen becomes a great-grandmother for the first time when Savannah Phillips is born. Volcanic ash cloud blowing in from Iceland grounds flights. Burma's pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi is released from house arrest.
2011: Middle East uprising. Japanese tsunami. Nato air raids on Libya. Prince William marries Kate Middleton at Westminster Abbey. Queen visits Ireland. The summer riots.
2012: The Queen marks her Diamond Jubilee. London 2012 Olympics. The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge announce they are expecting a baby.
2013: Continuing civil war in Syria. Pope Benedict XVI resigns. Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio becomes Pope Francis. Baroness Thatcher and Nelson Mandela die. Prince George of Cambridge is born.
2014: Major flooding in England and Wales. The first same-sex wedding takes place after gay marriage becomes legal in England and Wales. Crisis in Iraq and Syria over the Islamic State militant group. Scotland votes 'no' to independence. Ukraine crisis. Ebola epidemic.
2015: Attacks on Charlie Hebdo magazine in Paris. Princess Charlotte of Cambridge born. Conservative win majority in general election. Migrant crisis. The Queen becomes Britain's longest reigning monarch. Terror attacks in Paris, including at the Bataclan concert hall.
2016: Shooting at gay nightclub in Orlando. Queen celebrates her 90th birthday. British astronaut Tim Peake returns to Earth after a six-month mission on the ISS. The UK votes for Brexit in referendum on the EU. Theresa May becomes Prime Minister. The Queen becomes the world's longest-reigning, still-serving monarch after the death of the king of Thailand.
2017: US President Donald Trump takes office. The Queen reaches her Sapphire Jubilee - 65 years on the throne. Manchester Arena bombing. Early election. Grenfell Tower fire. The Queen and Philip celebrate their platinum wedding anniversary.
2018: Diplomatic row breaks out with Russia over poisoning of ex-spy Sergei Skripal. Prince Louis of Cambridge born. Prince Harry marries Meghan Markle.
2019: Notre Dame fire. Terrorist attack in Sri Lanka. Archie Mountbatten-Windsor is born to the Duke and Duchess of Sussex. Donald Trump's state visit to the UK. England win the Cricket World Cup. Theresa May resigns. Boris Johnson becomes Prime Minister. The Duke of York steps down from royal duties amid the Jeffrey Epstein scandal.
2020: Megxit - Harry and Meghan quit royal life. Brexit - the UK leaves the EU. Coronavirus outbreak. Lockdown in the UK. Black Lives Matter protests follow the death of George Floyd in the US.

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